Transition and Organized Traits? Or Both?

Adulthood as Action


Cook, E. “Adulthood as Action”. Asian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 44 Issue 3, p 317-337. Brill. 2016. EBSCO.



This article discusses Japanese “freeters,” young to mid-aged adults that are out of school and not housewives. Specifically, it looks at the freeters understanding of adulthood through their thoughts on employment, responsibility, purpose, and action. The overall main argument is that freeters view of adulthood is constituted through real action, real work, rather than social status transitions. This view of adulthood is somewhat new to japan, as the research started in 2007.



This source’s main argument is in direct agreement with my thesis. I argue that adulthood is made up of the traits of a given person and a defined age; in fact, Cook argues, through the freeters, that adulthood is attained not through society’s organized social standings, but rather an individuals actions. Although there is a clear difference between a characteristic and an action, I think actions determine one’s character; thus, it takes the action to gain the trait that I discuss. As the Associate Professor of Research on Japanese Youth at Hokkaido University in Japan, Cook and her team had a first-hand look at the youth.



Having read that all research was derived from Japanese adolescence, I will use this is example to display that my thesis is not constrained by the United States, but that people all around the world and all cultures. Unlike many authors on the topic of adulthood, Cook doesn’t specifically maker her own argument on adolescence, but that uses her extensive research to create the thesis of a majority of people within the discussed age group.


Contestable Adulthood


Bromnick, R., Horowitz, A. “Contestable Adulthood”. Youth & Society, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p209-231, University of Lincoln, United Kingdom, December 2007, United Kingdom. EBSCO.



The purpose of this article is to challenge a previous research that identifies a certain set of subjective markers that are said to characterize the transition to adulthood. Horowitz and Bromnick achieve this feat by displaying young people’s variety of selection of such subjective markers. The article’s main argument is that there is no set of markers that characterize the transition into adulthood, but rather conclude that the transition is a vague concept that is completely different depending on eveyrone’s environment and circumstances.



This article’s main argument is in direct agreement with the part of my thesis that states the transition into adulthood is a completely dependent process that can’t be confined to labels or ages placed by society. I will utilize this article’s extensive real examples of the variety of transitions that adolescents go through. These examples will bring more credibility to my claim that the transition is radically different for every youth. With a PhD in Psychology, specifically in Identity and Social Relationships, Horowitz has been studying adolescents since 1997 sythesizes her ample research in this article.



This article is in direct opposition to the “Dimensions of Successful young adult development” article. Both consider whether there is a specific set of criteria that makes an adult; however, this article discusses adulthood itself, while the Dimensions article focuses on how to be a successful adult. Additionally, this article is in direct agreement with my claim that there are no organized actions or traits one must have to become an adult, or transition into one. 


The dimensions of Successful young adult development: A conceptual and measurement framework.


Benson, P., Hawkins, D., Hill, K., Oesterle, S., Pashak, T., Scales, P. “The dimensions of successful young adult development: A conceptual and measurement framework”. Applied Developmental Science, Vol. 20 Issue 3, p150-174, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. September 2016. EBSCO.



            This article attempts to describe the dimensions of successful young adult development. The multiple authors name eight dimensions: social, psychological, behavioral, educational, occupational, health, ethical and civic. In fact, they go on to develop dimensions for young adults to stay in to keep their initial success. As well as these dimensions, the authors evaluate the success of current youth’s transitions. The authors also attempt to lay the groundwork for further, deeper research into the successful transition process.



I will use this article as a counter argument. It’s categorization of “dimensions” that youth’s are to follow to be successful adults, which is subjective on its own, opposes my claim that there are no set definitions of the transition. The source itself is incredibly relevant as it was released in July 2016, and the research accompanied was taken within the last 5 years. The ample amount of sources used my the authors makes the argument more difficult to argue against, but it’s author’s subjective categories will be easy to question.



Unlike my other sources, this article focuses solely on the transition of the youth into the adult. It doesn’t consider as many outside factors, and pulls less information from direct sources, i.e. the youth. I will use this source next to my inclusion of “Contestable Adulthood” article, as the contrast each other.


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2 Responses to Transition and Organized Traits? Or Both?

  1. Amrit Bhatia says:

    Hi Jackson! I really liked your first source a lot, and I am glad that you did it because I will probably look into the different cultural aspects of going into adulthood, and I am pretty sure Japanese freeters falls under that category. It seems to me that you are on this track, but with this information, you can state something along the lines that even though there are numerous ways around the world, eventually everyone becomes an adult through some means or another. Also, I disagree with Contestable Adulthood because I believe that there are some markers into adulthood, even if they are slightly different throughout different cultures. That being said, I think that it is great that you used this source to possibly put in your paper because it provides a different perspective on this idea of adulthood. At the end of the day, there really is no correct answer of how we approach adulthood, however, we can all agree that we will all eventually reach that phase in our lives.

  2. Aaron Simon says:

    I really like your sources and I think they do work well to support your thesis and also provide counter-arguments. I enjoy your first source in particular. The problems in Japan regarding “parasite singles” is well documented and is a perfect example for your paper. These “parasite singles” are single people in Japan between the ages of twenty and thirty-four who live with their parents. According to Japan’s Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the percentage of parasite singles among the ages 20-34 is 48.9%. This issue in Japan provides a very interesting topic of research for our papers, but especially yours. I also appreciate your second source which establishes that the transition to adulthood is unique for every individual. This is definitely a view that I believe is becoming more prevalent because society has changed so much since the traditional markers were used for the transition to adulthood. Youth today are so much more diverse in all aspects of their lives than were youth 50 years ago.

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